WHO (WHO, 2019) defined gaming disorder as a pattern of persistent or recurrent gaming behaviour (“digital gaming” or “video-gaming”), which may be online (i.e., over the internet) or offline, manifested by 3 characteristic symptoms:
The behaviour pattern is of sufficient severity to result in significant impairment in personal, family, social, educational, occupational or other important areas of functioning.
All the symptoms and functional impairment must be present for a person to be diagnosed with Gaming Disorder.
There are several scales for assessing problematic social media use, and perhaps the most known one is the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS).
The items are rated on the following scale: 1=very rarely, 2=rarely, 3=sometimes, 4=often, 5=very often; and rating 4 or more of these items with often or very often could be an indication of social media addiction. However, this is just for orientational purposes and is not an official criterion.
However, there is no evidence that usual and even high levels of digital technology use of children and adolescents will lead to negative outcomes (e.g., Orben & Przybylski, 2019). More crucial than that is how they are doing in their lives in general, are they fulfilling their school obligations, are they feeling competent and autonomous, are they socializing with their peers and so on.