Building on the Brofenbrenner’s work, McLeroy, Bibeau, Steckler, and Glanz (1988) offered five levels of factors’ influence specific to health behaviour: intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional, community, and public policy (Sallis, Owen, & Fisher, 2015).
Figure 1 Schematic representation of the Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory (1977)
Source: https://www.simplypsychology.org/Bronfenbrenner.html, author; Olivia Guy-Evans, published Nov 09, 2020
Table 8 Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Model (Paris, Ricardo, & Rymond, 2018)
|Name of System||Description of System|
Microsystems impact a child directly. These are the people with whom the child interacts such as parents, peers, and teachers. The relationship between individuals and those around them need to be considered. For example, to appreciate what is going on with a student in math, the relationship between the student and teacher should be known.
Mesosystems are interactions between those surrounding the individual. The relationship between parents and schools, for example will indirectly affect the child.
Larger institutions such as the mass media or the healthcare system are referred to as the exosystem. These have an impact on families and peers and schools who operate under policies and regulations found in these institutions.
We find cultural values and beliefs at the level of macrosystems. These larger ideals and expectations inform institutions that will ultimately impact the individual
All of this happens in an historical context referred to as the chronosystem. Cultural values change over time, as do policies of educational institutions or governments in certain political climates. Development occurs at a point in time.
Source: Paris, J., Ricardo, A., & Rymond, D. (2018). Child Growth and Development. College of the Canyons. Open textbook library – http://www.uilis.unsyiah.ac.id/oer/files/original/79f04d87bf89c0f27024fc4f376048c9.pdf)
Table 9 Risk and protective factors exist at every level at which an individual interacts with others and the society
influence self-efficacy, which may be broadly defined as an individual's sense of self, social competence, and self-determination
influence through social agents’ behaviour and attitudes, resulting in the development of a perception of what constitutes normative behaviour