a)Information deficit/rational model: Programmes following this model provide information about the health risks and negative social consequences of tobacco use so to address “knowledge deficits” mainly to provoke negative feelings such as fear, concern, or disgust.
b)Affective education model: The programmes try to influence beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and norms related to tobacco use with a focus on enhancing self-esteem and values.
c)Social influence resistance model (Bruvold, 1993; Lantz et al., 2000): This model emphasises that, in addition to individual factors like knowledge and attitudes, the social environment is a critical factor in tobacco use. From that, it places focus on social environment factors that can influence tobacco use, including peer behaviour and attitudes, and certain aspects of environmental, familial, and cultural contexts. The programmes focus on building skills to resist negative influences, for example, communication and decision-making skills, assertiveness training, and recognition of industry advertising tactics and peer influences.
a)reducing smoking in adolescents who never smoked at baseline
b)reducing smoking in adolescents who were smokers at baseline
Increased knowledge, experience-sharing, political will, appropriate resources and sound strategies are required to scale-up efforts against tobacco use (WHO, European Tobacco Use – Trends Report, 2019).
We recommend that you take some time to navigate on the portal and find out other beneficial but also ineffective programmes in the field.
|Older participants ages 16 to more than 20 years|
Project Toward No Drug Abuse (TNT)
Description of methodology:
To ensure program effectiveness, the program needs to be taught, following the below:
Outcomes of evaluation of the programme:
It was shown that this program succeeded in:
For more details on evaluation, click here.